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Research

OCS-BRIDGE is grounded in a very extensive scientific literature on the assessment of cognition and mood, and the common and/or debilitating difficulties that can arise following a brain injury. For many years Professor Glyn Humphreys and his team have been refining brief but comprehensive assessment of cognitive function most particularly for survivors of stroke. OCS-BRIDGE has benefitted from this work that previously produced the Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS) and its further slimmed down counterpart, the BCoS-lite (Bickerton et al., 2015; Pan et al., 2015). In turn these led to the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS; Demeyere, Riddoch, Slavkova, Bickerton, & Humphreys, 2015; a paper and pencil screening test that is widely used in health services in the UK and which has been translated into various languages (e.g. Kong et al., 2015).

The Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit have a long history of developing neuropsychological tests. These have included measures of attention (Robertson et al., 1994; Manly et al., 1998), spatial bias (Edgworth et al., 1998), executive function (Wilson et al., 1996), facial expression recognition (Young et al., Ekman, 2002), memory (Baddeley et al., 1994), prospective memory (Wilson et al., 2005) and Semantic Memory (van der Hurk & Hodges, 1995). The Cambridge Attention, Memory and Perception tests (BRIDGE) was designed to complement the OCS measures, extending the range and sensitivity of the assessment to cover important areas such as visual acuity, working memory, and recognition memory for faces and non-face visual stimuli.

The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9, Kroenke et al., 2001) and Generalised Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7; Spitzer et al, 2006) are thoroughly researched brief questionnaire measures that have been kindly granted open licence by Pfizer.

References

Baddeley, A. D., Emslie, H., & Nimmo-Smith, I. (1994). Doors and People. Bury St Edmunds: Thames Valley Test Company.

Bickerton, W.-L., Demeyere, N., Francis, D., Kumar, V., Remoundou, M., Balani, A., … Humphreys, G. W. (2015). The BCoS cognitive profile screen: Utility and predictive value for stroke. Neuropsychology, 29(4), 638–648.

Demeyere, N., Riddoch, M. J., Slavkova, E. D., Bickerton, W.-L., & Humphreys, G. W. (2015). The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS): validation of a stroke-specific short cognitive screening tool. Psychological Assessment, 27(3), 883–894.

Edgworth, J., Robertson, I. H., & MacMillan, T. (1998). The Balloons Test: a screening test for visual inattention. Bury St Edmunds: Thames Valley Test Company.

Kong, A. P.-H., Lam, P. H.-P., Ho, D. W.-L., Lau, J. K., Humphreys, G. W., Riddoch, J., & Weekes, B. (2015). The Hong Kong version of the Oxford Cognitive Screen (HK-OCS): validation study for Cantonese-speaking chronic stroke survivors. Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, 1–19.

Manly, T., Robertson, I. H., Anderson, V. A., & Nimmo-Smith, I. (1998).TEA-Ch - The Test of Everyday Attention for Children.

Pan, X., Chen, H., Bickerton, W.-L., Lau, J. K. L., Kong, A. P. H., Rotshtein, P., … Humphreys, G. W. (2015). Preliminary findings on the reliability and validity of the Cantonese Birmingham Cognitive Screen in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11, 2377–2390.

Robertson, I. H., Ward, A., Ridgeway, V., & Nimmo-Smith, I. (1994). Test of Everyday Attention. Bury St Edmunds: Thames Valley Test Company.

van der Hurk, P. R., & Hodges, J. R. (1995). Episodic and semantic memory in Alzheimer’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy: a comparative study. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 17(3), 459–471.

Wilson, B. A., Alderman, N., Burgess, P. W., Emsley, H., & Evans, J. (1996). Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome. Bury St Edmunds: Thames Valley Test Company.

Wilson, B. A., Emslie, H., Foley, J., Shiel, A., Watson, P., Hawkins, K., … Evans, J. J. (2005). Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT). London: Harcourt Assessment.

Young, A., Perrett, D., Calder, A. J., Sprengelmeyer, R., & Ekman, P. (2002). Facial Expressions of Emotion – Stimuli and Tests (FEEST). Thames Valley Test Company.

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